The importance of digital identities when securing supply chains Concepts for interconnected machines and systems in IoT and (I)IoT require that these components “know” each other and trust each other. This can only be achieved if each system is given a digital identity. The digital identity enables secure communication and updates. Business data generated by the solution can be trusted and updates can be performed in a reliable manner. These functions are fundamental for a trusted IoT solution and also what makes new business models possible. But what identity and when should it be issued to a machine or the system? Ideally, the identity should be issued directly during production of the individual components and/or when these components are assembled into a final product, machine or system. Only at this stage the necessary information is available to create the initial birth identity that enables a smart and trusted supply chain for that particular product.